Database management is the process for managing data that supports the company’s business operations. It includes data storage, distributing it to users and application programs, modifying it as necessary, monitoring changes in the data and preventing it from being corrupted due to unexpected failure. It is a part of a company’s total informational infrastructure that aids in decision-making and growth of the company as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with other companies developed the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which made it possible to store and retrieve large amounts data for a variety of applications, from the calculation of inventory to supporting complicated human resources and financial accounting functions.

A database consists of a set of tables that store data according to a certain schema, such as one-to many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records and permit cross-references between tables. Each table contains a number of fields, referred to as attributes, that provide information about the entities that comprise the data. Relational models, created by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM as a database, are the most popular database type today. This model is based upon normalizing the data, making it more easy to use. It also makes it easier to update data, avoiding the need to update several databases.

The majority of DBMSs are able to support different types of databases by offering different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level is focused on cost, scalability, as well as other operational issues, such as the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It may include a mix of various external views based on different data models. It may also include virtual tables that are calculated using generic data to enhance the performance.